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Now ask yourself: How often do consumers cut companies loose because of terrible service? All the time. They exact revenge on airlines that lose their bags, cable providers whose technicians keep them waiting, cellular companies whose reps put them on permanent hold, and dry cleaners who don’t understand what “rush order” means.

Most customers encounter loyalty-eroding problems when they engage with customer service.

56% report having to re-explain an issue

57% report having to switch from the web to the phone

59% report expending moderate-to-high effort to resolve an issue

59% report being transferred

62% report having to repeatedly contact the company to resolve an issue

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Consumers’ impulse to punish bad service—at least more readily than to reward delightful service—plays out dramatically in both phone-based and self-service interactions, which are most companies’ largest customer service channels. In those settings, our research shows, loyalty has a lot more to do with how well companies deliver on their basic, even plain-vanilla promises than on how dazzling the service experience might be. Yet most companies have failed to realize this and pay dearly in terms of wasted investments and lost customers.

Service failures not only drive existing customers to defect—they also can repel prospective ones. Our research shows:

25% of customers are likely to say something positive about their customer service experience

65% are likely to speak negatively

23% of customers who had a positive service interaction told 10 or more people about it

48% of customers who had negative experiences told 10 or more others

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To examine the links between customer service and loyalty, the Customer Contact Council, a division of the Corporate Executive Board, conducted a study of more than 75,000 people who had interacted over the phone with contact-center representatives or through self-service channels such as the web, voice prompts, chat, and e-mail. We also held hundreds of structured interviews with customer service leaders and their functional counterparts in large companies throughout the world. (For more detail, see the sidebar “About the Research.”) Our research addressed three questions:

We defined “loyalty” as customers’ intention to continue doing business with a company, increase their spending, or say good things about it (or refrain from saying bad things). During a three-year period, we surveyed more than 75,000 B2C and B2B customers about their recent service interactions in major non-face-to-face channels, including live phone calls, voice prompts, web, chat, and e-mail. The companies represent dozens of industries, ranging from consumer electronics and packaged goods to banking and travel and leisure, in North America, Europe, South Africa, Australia, and New Zealand. We isolated the elements of each interaction that drove customer loyalty, both positively and negatively, and controlled for variables including the type of service issue, whether it was handled by an in-house or an outside contact center, the rep’s tenure with the company, the company’s size, the customer’s personality type, the customer’s mood prior to the interaction, switching costs, the frequency with which ads were seen or heard, the perceived product quality and value, product price, the industry, and the specific company. Finally, we conducted several hundred structured interviews in order to understand companies’ customer service strategies and operations in detail.

Although our research focused exclusively on contact-center interactions, it makes intuitive sense that the findings apply to face-to-face encounters as well.

Two critical findings emerged that should affect every company’s customer service strategy. First, delighting customers doesn’t build loyalty; reducing their effort—the work they must do to get their problem solved—does. Second, acting deliberately on this insight can help improve customer service, reduce customer service costs, and decrease customer churn.

Lemelson Center
June 19, 2012 by Eric S. Hintz

My wife Emma took a picture of her broken dresser with the missing middle drawer. It’s a scornful reminder of my mechanical ineptitude.

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My wife Emma took this picture of her broken dresser with the missing middle drawer. It’s a scornful reminder of my mechanical ineptitude.


One day last year, the middle drawer started sticking. I attempted to fix it, but it was a bad scene—mangled metal tracking and ball bearings rolling all over the floor. Emma quickly sized up my limited abilities and put the broken drawer out on the curb on garbage day—it would end up in a landfill. Eventually, Emma will lose patience with this two-drawer dresser and it will get discarded too.

Maybe it’s a cliché that a bookish historian like me is not so mechanically inclined. But this episode got me thinking about the lost art of tinkering, sustainability, and what it might mean for future generations of inventors.

The history of invention is filled with stories of young inventors honing their mechanical abilities by fixing broken stuff. For example, as a young girl, toy inventor and GirlTech CEO Janese Swanson learned to repair her family’s broken appliances because they lived on a tight budget. She discovered that tinkering was fun—she later took apart an old mechanical typewriter and re-arranged the keys so she could type in her own secret code! This kind of tinkering is basic training for inventors. Through tinkering, budding inventors come to understand the properties of motors, gears, and electrical circuits. They sharpen their manual dexterity and what Visa Payment Online Discount Pre Order Superstar Distressed Leather Suede And Leopardprint Calf Hair Sneakers White Golden Goose Clearance Pre Order Manchester Sale Online Outlet Newest gbvQdaD3rv
—the ability to envision various technical configurations in the inventor’s imagination prior to actually building them.

We used to be a nation of tinkerers—just ask two of our former Lemelson Center Fellows . As Kathy Franz has observed, tinkerers reinvented the early automobile , developing new accessories to customize their famously standardized and mass-produced Ford Model T’s. Similarly, Mens Mazama Gymnastics Shoes Blue 8 Brooks Top Quality For Sale gzTWq
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between the 1930s and 1970s. In both of these examples, tinkering was more than just a technical matter. It was a hobby, a means of self-expression, and the genesis of new social communities. Tinkering was not just practical—it was pleasurable.

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The Observer from the Rx pattern is the trio of callbacks that get subscribed to an Pick A Best For Sale Slim Fit Blue Tonic Suit Trousers Blue Harry Brown Sale Really Clearance 2018 New jVJ3Y32h4
for receiving events.

In essence the Observer is this type:

Obviously the Observer interface doesn’t do much other than establishing a communication protocol between producers and consumers. Therefore when pushing items into an Observer , we need a contract:


Let’s build an observer that just logs events:

And in case you just want an empty Observer that does nothing but logs onError in case it happens:

Or you can quickly build an Observer that only logs the events that it receives. We’ll use this in other samples:

Feeding one element, then stopping. This is legal:

Back-pressuring onComplete is optional, so you can also do this:

Feeding two elements, then stopping. This is NOT legal:

The correct way of doing this:

Notice that the contract says that these calls must never be concurrent, we need imposed ordering. But here we have clear happens-before relationships between calls, so this code is correct.

All together now. Lets feed an entire Iterator :

You’ll notice that the implementation tries really hard to not break the contract. The streamErrors pattern is peculiar. We are making a difference between errors thrown by the Iterator , which we should stream with onError and errors thrown by the Observer implementation. By contract the Observer is not allowed to throw errors, ever, therefore if it happens, the behavior is undefined - though we prefer to log it when we catch such instances.

Given that, in order to do anything with an Observer we always need a Scheduler , the Subscriber is a data type that’s an Observer with a Scheduler attached:

When subscribing to an Observable , the base subscribe method wants a Subscriber , because observables need a Scheduler when consumed. So on subscribe you either have to specify it directly, or you specify a plain Observer with a Scheduler taken implicitly and then under the covers a Subscriber instance is being built for you.

To convert a plain Observer into a Subscriber :

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